Exploring Physical Science
1-1 SCIENCE - NOT JUST FOR SCIENTISTS
Science means "to know."
Science is more than just observations: (pure problem solving)
The goal of Science is- to understand the world around us.
Technology: The application of Scientific Knowledge to improve the quality of human life.
Science includes both "Pure Science," for the advancement of knowledge, and "Applied Science," or technology.
Scientific Theory: Logical explanation for events that occur in nature.
Scientific Law: Summarizes observed experimental facts - does not explain A "Rule of Nature"
Branches of Science:
Physical Science deals with: MATTER & ENERGY
composition & properties of matter
What matter is "made up of" What matter is"like"and how it "behaves"
1-2 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD -
state the problem
form a hypothesis
record and analyze data (tools to use charts, tables and graphs)
Experiment: Organized procedure for testing a hypothesis
Control: A standard for comparison.
Constant: A factor that doesn't vary in an experiment
Independent Variable: Factor adjusted by the experimenter
Dependent Variable: "Depends" on the value of the "independent variable"
A question becomes a problem when the solutions are not obvious.
Solving a problem involves finding missing information.
In an "exercise," the steps required to find the solution are usually obvious.
The more precisely you can define the problem, the less time you'll spend looking for solutions.
Use what you know about the problem to predict a solution and then try it.
Look for patterns that will help you make predictions about the problem.
Develop a model.
Model: An idea, system, or structure that represents whatever you're trying to explain.
Break the problem down into smaller problems.
Trial & Error
Critical Thinking: A process that uses certain skills to solve a problem.
Observation: Using your senses to gather information.
1-3 THE METRIC SYSTEM
International System of Units - "SI"
Decimal system based on units of "10."
Dimensional Analysis: The skill of converting one unit to another.
Conversion Factor: A fraction that always equals zero.
1-4 TOOLS OF MEASUREMENT
||length Meter stick
||volume Graduated cylinder
1-5 SAFETY IN THE SCIENCE LABORATORY
1. Follow the Teacher's directions
(we're trained professionals!)
2. Follow Text directions
(a professional publication.)
Safety Symbols (p33)
Physical Science Chapter 2 General Properties of Matter
Matter is anything that takes up space (volume) and has mass.
All matter has "general properties" which can be measured and/or calculated ex: mass, weight, volume, and density.
2-2 MASS AND WEIGHT
Mass: The amount of stuff (matter) in an object.
The measure of the inertia of an object.
(Inertia is resistance to change in motion - "laziness")
Mass is measured in grams and kilograms.
Weight: A changeable property of matter.
Weight is a measure of the pull (force) of gravity on an object.
Gravity is a force that every object (matter) in the universe exerts on every other object in the universe.
Gravitational force: directly proportional to mass and inversely proportional to the
distance between objects.
Weight is measured in Newtons (N).
2-3 VOLUME AND DENSITY
Volume is "space." length x width x height
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
The properties of matter, the mass in an object and the space it takes up (volume) describe "density."
Density is mass per unit volume
D = mass/volume
D = m/v
The density of water is 1 g/mL