Cu1 |

Chapter 1 Notes |

Applied science / Technology |

Matter

Volume |

Atom |

Element

Compound

*Physical Properties; characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing in the identity of a substance.

Ex: Grinding, melting, cutting, boiling, malleability, and conductivity.

States of matter |

Ex: Burning, digesting, rusting (oxidation), tarnishing

Indications of chemical change: Precipitate, evolution of gas, color change and /or energy change

Reactants ® Products

Ex: Hydrogen plus Oxygen makes water

H2 + O2 = H2O

Intro. periodic table |

Groups / Families

Periods

Types of elements |

Characteristics

Ductile

High tensile strength

Malleable

high m.p

Unique metals |

Al - soft

Mg & Bi - brittle

Cu - reddish brown solid

Green to blue when bonded to S and O

Cha 2 Chemistry notes

Sci. Measurement |

Qualitative: Subjective nonnumeric |

Quantitative: Objective numerical |

Units= define the numbers |

Measurements contain two parts 1) number 2) unit |

Ex: 2ml |

Standards: Agreed upon unit of comparison |

Metric system is the system adopted for its 1) convenience based on ten |

2) Simple conversion |

Length | meter | m |

Mass | Kilogram | Kg |

Time | Second | s |

Kelvin | K | |

mole | mol | |

Luminous Intensity | candela | cd |

Length: Measures distance |

Instrument: Meter stick |

Simple conversion: |

Volume: The amount of space matter takes up

Unit: Derived from the SI unit for length |

Ex: Regular shaped objects |

V = L x W x H |

Ex: |

Liter is the volume of a cube that is 10 cm high, 10 cm long, and 10 cm wide. |

Ex: Irregular shape objects: water displacement |

1 L = 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 = 1000 ml |

VII. Mass vs. weight

Mass is the amount of matter an object contains |

Weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object. |

Mass

Standard 1 Kg |

Tool- Balance/scale |

Density of water = 1 g/cm3 |

Ex: |

Specific gravity = Density of substance |

___________________ |

Density of water |

Ex: |

water is used as the standard for liquids |

H gas or air is used as a standard for gases |

Temperature: The degree of hotness or coldness of an object |

Heat flows from an area of [high ] to an area of [low]. |

[ ] = Concentration |

b.p. water = 100oC |

Metric System and Scientific Notation

Metric System

Metric Units

The basic units of measure in the Metric System are:

Length | Meter (m) |

Capacity (liquid measure) | Liter (l) |

Weight | Gram (g) |

Pressure | Bar (b) |

Temperature | Celsius (°C), Kelvin (K) |

Force | Newton |

Multiples of the basic units are designated by the following prefix: (the "c" is pronounced like a "k")

deka- | 10 | Example: | dekagram | 10 grams |

hecto- | 100 | Example: | hectoliter | 100 liters |

kilo- | 1000 | Example: | kilometer | 1000 meters |

Fractions of the basic units are designated by the following prefix: (the "c" is pronounced like an "s")

deci- | 0.1 | Example: | decimeter | 0.1 meters |

centi- | 0.01 | Example: | centigram | 0.01 grams |

milli- | 0.001 | Example: | millibar | 0.001 bars |

Metric System Conversions

Changing metric units is as simple as multiplying or dividing by 10 or 1000. The diagram below shows you how to convert one unit into another by a series of multiplication or division.
km - kilometer m - meter dm - decimeter cm - centimeter mm - millimeter

Convert the following values. (enter all values without commas - example 5,678 would be entered as 5678) 1. 7 cm = mm |

3. 45 m = cm

4. 10,946 m = km

5. 18,300 cm = m

6. 75.3 km = m

7. 63.9 cm = mm

8. 4 m = cm

9. 63 km = m

10. 19 km = mm

17. 1 kilometer = meter

18. 1 meter = decimeters

19. 1 meter = centimeters

20. 1 meter = millimeters

21. 1 centimeter = millimeters

22. 1 km = millimeters

Scientific Notation |

The simplest method for conversion of standard notation to scientific notation is move the decimal. For very large numbers, move the decimal to the left, until it is after the first numeral. Count the number of places the decimal has moved. This then becomes the exponent on the 10.

7,456,000,000 = |

384,400 = |

7423 = |

543,332,000,000,000,000,000 = |

0.000032 = |

0. 0.065 = |

0.000000000000000000000062 = |

Write the following using standard notation. (enter all values without commas - example 5,678 would be entered as 5678)(enter all decimal values less than |

6.482 x 104 = |

1.42 x 10-8 = |

4.85 x 1012 = |

3.4 x 10-3 = |

2.76 x 1016 = |

8.6 x 10-17 = |

6.26 x 101 = |

Scientific notation and calculator |

To enter the number 7.42 x 1022, begin by entering 7.42. Then press the EE key. Then enter 22. You may then proceed with normal calculations.

To enter the number 3.64 x 10-13, begin by entering 3.64. Then press the EE key, then press the (+/-) key. Then enter 13.

Perform the indicated operations. Express all answers in scientific notation.

Use the "E" format for "x10": example 3.46 E -24 (round all decimals to 2 decimal places)(the space before and after the E is important)

47. (3 x 104)(6.3 x 105) = |

48. (7 x 10-3)(6.1 x 10-8) = |

49. (4.4 x 105)/(9.6 x 1012) = |

50. (7.3 x 104)/(2.8 x 10-7) = |

XI. S. I. System temperature conversion |

Kelvin f.p. water 273 K |

b.p. water 373 K |

Absolute zero: no molecular movement at all |

K = oC + 273 |

Percent error = (accepted - actual) x 100 |

Accepted |