Chapter 3 & 4 notes
Physical Science Chapter 3
Physical and Chemical Changes
PHASES OF MATTER
Characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.
in which matter can exist.
definite volume and shape - usually crystal structure (Repeating pattern)
definite volume; takes the shape of the container
no definite volume or shape
most common phase of matter in the universe
Temperature at which a solid changes into liquid.
Phase change from liquid to solid.
Temperature at which a liquid substance becomes solid.
Freezing Point = Melting Point
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND CHANGES
Describe a substance's ability to change into a different substance.
The ability to burn (combine with oxygen).
Changes that substances undergo when they turn into different substances
The process by which the substance changes.
Physical Science Chapter 4
Mixtures, Elements, and Compounds
CLASSES OF MATTER
Classification of material that is either an
A substance cannot be broken down or separated by physical means.
Matter that consists of two or more substances mixed together, but not chemically combined
Substances in mixtures keep their
most of their physical properties
does not change!
Substances can be present in any amount.
Can be separated by
Types of Mixtures:
Large visible particles, easily separated.
Mixtures that do not settle out of suspension (smog).
A heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible articles settle.
Well mixed with even distribution of the substances - particles do not settle out.
Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single physical phase.
homogeneous mixture that does not settle -
substance dissolved (
substance that does the dissolving (
Types of solutions p94
(types & examples)
amount of solute
that can completely
given amount of solvent
An element is a pure substance
- made of only 1 type of substance.
Building block of matter - smallest particle of an element that has the same properties as the element.
1 or 2 letter shorthand for the element's name.
(First letter is always capitalized, but the second letter never is!)
Compounds are pure substances made up of two or more elements.
A compound usually has very a different appearance and characteristics from the elements that it is made of.
Smallest particle of a compound that retains the properties of the compound.
Shorthand for a chemical substance.
Show the ratio of elements in a compound.
Description of a chemical reaction using symbols and formulas.
Numbers which balance the equation.